Independent Software QA Testing Services

Functional Testing 101

A Complete Guide to All Functional Testing FAQs

Functional testing is a type of software testing that seeks to establish whether or not an application feature works as per its intended requirements. A function is always compared to its corresponding requirement, ascertaining whether its output or action response is consistent with the end user’s expectations. The testing is usually executed by providing sample inputs, capturing the resultant outputs, and verifying them with the expected outcomes.

Some functional testing instances – High Priority

  • Users can successfully log in to the application once they provide legitimate credentials.
  • The payment gateways reject the input and display an error text when typing in an invalid credit card number.
  • The “Adding to the New Record” feature screen successfully adds in when saving a new record to the database
  • The software should have a coherent user interface, and a consistent API, and seamlessly integrates with business processes at the end of the functional testing process.

Do Remember…
Much unlike its non-functional testing counterparts, functional testing isn’t necessarily concerned with investigating the quality, security, or performance of the application’s source code. And it is not intended to gauge its speed, scalability, and reliability.

Rather, functional testing solely focuses on the outcomes or results of input processing and not the mechanics of it, determining whether the application accords with the basic minimum end user criteria and expectations.


The Cardinal Steps of Functional Testing

A functional testing plan usually follows 6 basic stages:

Identification Of Testing Goals
Functional testing goals are usually set toward the expected software features based on the project requirements. Testing goals include validating that the application works as intended to and handles errors and unexpected scenarios perfectly.

Create Test Case Scenarios
Developing a list of all possible (or at least the most important) test scenarios for a given feature. Test scenarios entail mapping the different pathways the feature will be used. For instance, in a payment module, the test scenarios may include currency conversion, notifying invalid or expired card numbers, and auto generating a PIN on a successful transaction completion along with a Billing ID.

Generating Test Data
Create test data that simulate normal feature use conditions based on the test scenarios identified. Test data can be entered manually (e.g. from an MS Excel spreadsheet or a printout) or via a script or test automation tool that auto inputs the data from a database, flat file, XML, or spreadsheet. Each set of collected data should also have associated datasets that log in the expected result that the earlier dataset should have generated.

Designing Test Cases
Involves creating test cases based on the different desired outcomes for the given inputs. Like entering an invalid credit card number, the application should ideally display an error message.

Executing Test Cases
Run the test cases through the application and compare actual outcomes against expected results. If actual and expected outputs are different, the feature has failed the test and a defect should be recorded.

Documentation, Tracking, and Resolving Defects
Once a defect is identified, it should be recorded on a formal tracking system that’s accessible to the entire project team. The requisite changes should be made to the application and the test case executed again to confirm resolution before a defect is marked as closed.

Functional Testing - Best Practices

Early test case creation
Application or module coding should not be completed before starting to create test cases. Always remember, in the early phases of the project, the user requirements will be the most detailed. One can always come back and amend test cases later as and when needed.

Functional testing can often be arduous, repetitive, and time intensive. Automation can ensure desired functionality- identify defects, and save on test time and costs in the app delivery process. I Although it may not be possible, or even desirable, to automate all test cases, just getting the most important test cases off the manual list can nevertheless vastly improve test ROI.

Understanding the User’s POV
Functional testers must have a deep acknowledgment of the end user’s thought process. There are often many different types of users for each application (buyers, sellers, administrators, admins, data entry clerks, supervisors, etc.). And the typical navigation pathways of the application must be taken into account prior to creating each test plan.

Having finite time and resources. All features can’t be tested. However, certain cardinal application functions are tagged high-priority and must, therefore, take higher testing precedence over low priority features.

Functional Testing - Redefined At Thought Frameworks

At Thought Frameworks the two popular techniques for functional testing protocols are testing based on requirements and testing based on business scenarios.

Different provisions for functional testing solutions deployed are smoke testing, regression testing, integration testing, usability testing, functional system testing, end-to-end testing, cross browser functional testing, and multi version and concurrent testing.

The purpose of functional testing for a software application is to test each of its features and aspects by providing the appropriate input and re-verifying the expected outputs against the functional requirements.

Software functional testing involves a black box testing procedure. This does not take into consideration the source code of the application. Functional testing also checks user interface, APIs, database, security, and client and server communication. It can be performed both manually or can be fully automated.

A good functional testing protocol avoids defect leakage ensuring the quality of the end product.

Methodology at Thought Frameworks

The two most popular functional testing techniques deployed are:

Requirement based testing is a series of tests performed according to functional specifications provided by the client and verifying the product against the same.

Business scenario-based testing is a series of tests performed as per the industry functionality solely from a business perspective.

FTP at Thought Frameworks

A functional testing plan or FTP is a quality measurement matrix of the functional components of a system. It is testing the application from the end user’s viewpoint

Types of Software Functional Testing Services at Thought Frameworks

  • Smoke Testing is a preliminary test to identify the build stability highlighting simple errors/failures which could impact a software release cycle.
  • Regression Testing ensures that an existing build is stable in terms of feature functionality post new updates like (New code, enhancements, fixing of bugs, etc)
  • Integration Testing is a phase where software modules are tested for their performance and expected to work in coherence with other modules and validate the end scenario.
  • Usability Testing is a technique used in user-centered interaction with the design to evaluate the product based on the end user. This reports the user’s comfort level, ease of use, feedback, and suggestions/complaints.
  • Functional System Testing is performed on a complete system. It verifies that each function of the software application with its modules and components is working in sync with the given specifications and requirements.
  • End to End Testing is initiated with the goal to simulate a real user case scenario from start to finish.

Our Approach

  • Understanding the Requirements
  • Identifying test scenarios, test input or test data based on given requirements
  • Evaluate expected outcomes with pre-determined test input values
  • Execute test cases
  • Compare actual and expected results.
  • Provide test evidence for failed test scenarios
  • Capture all the bugs logged.
  • Revalidate the failed test scenarios to ensure bugs are fixed & closed.


  • Cross Browser Functional Testing
    Multi browser testing is done to check that the Application Under Test (AUT) is consistent across multiple browsers like Safari, Chrome, IP, and Firefox. Compatibility is checked when the same test script is run over different browsers. With Smart test execution, multiple browsers or devices can be covered.
  • Multi Version Testing: The AUT is tested across more than one version of the browser, such as Mozilla Firefox 10 onwards or IE 10, 11.
  • Concurrent Testing is monitoring the effect while multiple users perform the same action at the same time. This is also called multi-user testing.


  • Bug Tracking Tool
  1. Jira
  • Test Management Tools
  1. Rally
  2. Zephyr
  3. Xray
  4. Test Rail
  5. Capture Logs
  6. Fiddler
  7. Bird eats bug
  8. Snag it


The ideal time to perform functional software testing is when the product is in the build phase or has passed the smoke test phase.

Additional Services

Other recommended testing services one must opt for along with software functional testing are.

  • Non-functional software testing checks for aspects like performance, reliability, capability & other non-functional aspects of the software system.


A Typical Functional Testing Service Environment at Thought Frameworks requires

  • A dedicated team of specialized testers
  • Complete quality assurance deployment and reliability on every project
  • Covering every aspect of website & mobile app testing
  • We make sure that the website & mobile app is easy to use in terms of performance for the end users

Value additions

  • We suggest enhancing experiences.
  • Ensure errors are intentionally added to the test cases to capture them
  • Checked for the consistency validation messages for Success,
  • Error and warning for all Sprints.
  • Converting queries to bugs and bugs to test cases.
  • For web issues, we capture the logs and highlight those issues to ensure development gets enough information in fixing the bugs.
  • Brainstorming sessions to understand the features and list missing scenarios.

Our Project Handling Processes

1. How do you cover multiple browsers & mobile devices when you have less time?

We use smart test execution when there is less time and when the sprint duration is short, to ensure that we test based on the priority.

2. Communication between clients & QA team?

We communicate on Slack or Skype to clarify queries regularly if any and ensure that communication between the development team and testing team are always on the same page.

3. How does TF manage the regular test cycles?

We send Daily status reports, Weekly status reports and have weekly calls with clients.

4. How do we design test cases?

Refer to wireframe tools like Figma and design test cases with test case design techniques such as equivalence partition, Boundary value analysis, and error guessing.

5. How do we cover multiple mobile device testing?

We have a mobile test lab along with that we are using Browser stack for all the projects.

End Results & Outcomes

Help Increase The Number Of Development Cycles Achieve Resilience And Ease Of Execution Ensuring Greater Product Scalability Promising All Features Delivery On Time.

About Thought Frameworks

Thought Frameworks is a U.S. based leading QA and software testing organization that’s been in business since 2009, armed with the ultimate solutions for all your software’s QA testing challenges. Having headquarters both in California, USA and a fully functional well equipped QA Test Lab in Bengaluru-India, that delivers premium QA and QC services endlessly across different Industry domains and niches. An ISTQB Silver Partnered Company, our superhuman test team heroes have delivered numerous successful QA and QC projects for clients across the globe. Get powered by our deep dive bug hunting process that helps your software in clocking release cycles on time while delivering excelling quality and functionality.

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